Knowledge is needed urgently. In 1996 in the journal “Sociological Studies” held “round table” on “The History of sociology and history of social thought: the general and special.” JT Toshchenko expressed this thought: “How and when the cleavage between a social and sociological knowledge, occurred when the face that made it possible to speak of sociology as a science of the sovereign?
What reasons led to its institutionalization? However, in general the task of overcoming the crisis management degree of modernization in the caste society could not solve, the Russian Empire fell, according to Weber, the “historical trap” – a system of interacting vicious circles. Whatever made the tsarist government, discontent was growing.
The presence of these vicious circles, Weber explains, in particular, the hostile attitude of the autocracy towards the Zemstvo self-government as an institution, and therefore a significant part of the nobility and the intelligentsia. In an attempt to stop the revolution of the autocracy was forced to suppress their natural allies. Having stripped-down, emasculated constitution (Manifesto October 17, 1905), it has become hostage to autocracy, and has lost its power, not gaining anything in return.
From now on, it only worsened the situation, but was unable to improve it. “It is not in a position to attempt to resolve whatever the big social problem, not dealing with a death-blow” – wrote Weber. Now, in the new society, there were masses of people not included in any community structures, in addition, they were mass generated by the revolution, people with new thinking, rejecting the old hierarchies and old authorities. The world itself was devoid of holiness during the Protestant Reformation, the more devoid of holiness were state and power. Required new knowledge about the society, obtained by using new methods.
Augustine expressed the drama of man in society, going through a huge philosophical, spiritual and social shift – from pagan antiquity to the Christian Middle Ages, and from slavery to the new fabric of life. His “Confessions” is close to us today by the sense of this crisis.
Ecumenical Councils and the debates with the heretics, the organization of monasteries and schools, business records management estates orders of chivalry, the development of large programs such as the Crusades – it was saturated with issues that we have now carried it to the social studies. In the Middle Ages in the monasteries of scholastics and universities to cultivate norms and methods of discussion, the ways and means of setting goals conclusions. They performed only time-consuming work on the development of cognitive tools applicable to the reality of society. The magnitude of the intellectual work was, by the standards of Russia at that time, very, very large. It is hard to say what would have been Russian Middle Ages, if not for the invasion of the Mongols. But the historical reality will not change.